The following guidelines should be used to record publication and copyright dates in Polaris records for audio recordings. Each example also provides appropriate coding of related fixed field elements.
The copyright date for audio recordings is called a phonogram date. The symbol is ℗.
Audio recordings rarely have a publication date. Generally, the phonogram date is recorded as an implied publication date.
If the resource has no publication date but has a phonogram date, record the phonogram date as an implied publication date in 264 _ 1 ‡c and add 264 _ 4 ‡c with the phonogram date.
264 _ 1 ‡aNew York :‡bMacmillan Audio,‡c
264 _ 4 ‡c℗2020
Fixed field elements: DtSt (Type of date): t Date 1: 2020 Date 2: 2020
Audio recordings may have both phonogram (℗) and copyright (©) dates. For audiobooks, the © date is usually the copyright date of the print book. For musical audio recordings, the © date may be the copyright date of accompanying textual material.
In general, © dates may be ignored.
Exception: If the resource does not have a ℗ date but has a © date, record the © date as an implied publication date.
On the resource: ©2020 on container. No ℗ date on the resource.
264 _ 1 ‡aLouisville, CO :‡bSounds True, Inc.,‡c
Fixed field elements: DtSt (Type of date): s Date 1: 2020
If the resource has multiple ℗ dates, record the latest date that applies to the resource as a whole. If none of the dates apply to the resource as a whole, record the latest date as an implied publication date in
264 _ 1 ‡c, but do not record a ℗ date in
264 _ 4 ‡c.
On the resource: ℗2015 on Disc 1, ℗2016 on Disc 2, ℗2019 on Disc 3. No ℗ date for the recording as a whole.
264 _ 1 ‡aNashville, TN :‡bSony Music Nashville,‡c
Fixed field elements: DtSt (Type of date): s Date 1: 2019
A date on a regular compact disc earlier than 1982 or a date on an MP3-CD earlier than 2000 should not be considered a publication date, as these are the dates these formats first became available in the United States. A later date from the container or accompanying material should be used to imply a publication date.
If there are no dates of any kind available on the resource, record an estimated publication date or range of dates.
264 _ 1 ‡c ends in a period . when recording a publication date and a square bracket ] when recording an implied publication date.
There is no ending punctuation in
264 _ 4 ‡c.
These edits should be done to all records being imported into Polaris. It is optional to save these edits to OCLC master records.